By Hans J. Krappe, Reinhard Lipperheide, Institut für Kernphysik
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Extra info for Advanced Methods in the Evaluation of Nuclear Scattering Data
1 Transformation of Neutron-rich Radioactive Nuclei Neutron-rich nuclei fall below the line of stable nuclei as shown in Figure 3-2 for 14C, an activation product produced by an (n,p) reaction with stable nitrogen thus reducing the proton number from 7 to 6 and increasing the neutron number from 7 to 8. For neutron-rich nuclei to become stable, they need to reduce the number of neutrons in order to become one of the stable nuclides which are diagonally up and to the left on the chart of the nuclides.
The energy of the monoenergetic neutrino is just the Q-value for the transformation minus any excitation energy that may be emitted in the form of gamma rays to relieve excitation energy retained by the transformed nucleus. Example 3-2. What is the energy of the neutrino emitted in electron capture transformation of 22Na to 22Ne? Solution. 28 MeV gamma photon. 7 Radioactive Transformation of Heavy Nuclei by Alpha Particle Emission A number of unstable nuclei exist above Z = 83 (bismuth). These nuclei include the long-lived naturally occurring 238U, 235U, and 232Th and their transformation products, and they also include artificially produced transuranic radionuclides such as 239Pu, 241Am, etc.
12 Internal Conversion Many nuclei are left in an excited state following radioactive transformation. , they are internally converted to an ejected electron to relieve the excitation energy remaining in the nucleus. , from a bound electron to an ejected electron with kinetic energy). This process competes with gamma emission to relieve the excitation energy left in the nucleus after a transformation occurs by particle emission or electron capture. Since internal conversion occurs when an orbital electron and an excited nucleus meet, it is more prevalent for metastable nuclides in which the nucleus retains the excitation energy for a longer period, but it can occur with any excited nucleus that could emit gamma radiation, just with lower (often negligible) probability.
Advanced Methods in the Evaluation of Nuclear Scattering Data by Hans J. Krappe, Reinhard Lipperheide, Institut für Kernphysik