By Allen Taflove
Edited through the pioneer and optimal authority at the topic, this is the 1st booklet to gather in a single source the newest options and result of the prime theoreticians and practitioners of FD-TD computational electromagnetics modelling. Designed to construct on his well known 1995 e-book, "Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method", the writer describes and exhibits tips on how to practice the most recent advances in FD-TD in designing better-performing microwave and millimeter wave units and circuits, high-speed electronic circuits, VLSI-scale optical units and ultra-wideband and shrewdpermanent antennas. This unmarried professional resource may also support clear up a large choice of difficulties within the following parts: imaging of underground and organic constructions; comparing the protection of instant units, together with cell phones; bioelectromagnetics protection evaluate and clinical purposes; and completely matched layer media, periodic media, high-order equipment, multiresolution concepts and unstructured grids
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Additional info for Advances in computational electrodynamics : the finite-difference time-domain method
Classification of Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . Sensor Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Historical Remarks The industrial field has always been dependant on measuring instruments for the registration of physical parameters. For this reason, the technology of sensors and transducers has a long tradition. Wilhelm von Siemens, for example, built one of the first sensors in 1860.
N ) thickness of oxide 10 15 15 10 19 22 10 20 10 5 ' 632 Symbol List of Symbols Designation Chapter diameter diffusion constant (coefficient) elementary charge induced voltage collection efficiency electric field ( E x ,E y , E,: components) activation energy gap energy quantity of the source fluid to be measured relative error measure Young’s modulus for silicon frequency scalar field probability density function failure probability Faraday constant force stress general vector field Lorentz force sensor output probability function 19 20 9 3, 8 19 11 3 3 2 19 3 7 10 2 edge factor gap between mask and wafer generation rate shear modulus abbreviation for the sum of variables response to a unit impulse hazard function magnetic field transfer function Fourier transform of impulse response h (t) 1, current intensity of light set of N sensors or T transducers minimum line width J current density k constant segregation coefficient of impurity Boltzmann constant kB 10 2 2 2 2 2, 17 11 5 19, 21 5 List of Symbols Symbol Designation Chapter coefficients in PLS-method sensitivity of device i geometric sensitivity factor for current imbalance 5 10 etched depth length inductance length thickness of porons layer on cathode M M T rn n P Pk P P Pi 4 Q 633 figure of merit for power-related Hall sensitivity Mach number magnetization bending moment coefficient in PLS-method mass relative molar mass (’molecular weight’) concentration (eg of negative charge carriers) number refractive index normal vector coefficient in PLS-method Gauss’ distribution apparent refractive index impurity concentration number number of counts (or of cycles) numerical aperture density of states in the conduction bands signal of sensor element i Reynolds number number of cycles for time T thermal load density of states in the valence bands concentration of positive charge carriers pressure weighting factor pressure polarization property of source material to be measured effective loading elementary charge flow quantity quality 1 5 14 7 22 3 11 22 3, 5 , 7 10 11 5 2 3 10 5 3 11 22 10 3 3 5 10 9 18 3 3, 7 19 12 2 634 List of Symbols Symbol Designation Chapter r Hall scattering coefficient ratio of total to static pressure transmission factor coil radius gas constant recombination rate resistance resolution deviation function reliability function Hall coefficient projected range gas constant I ion dose per unit area zero pressure separation area of cathode deviation function selectivity signal of sensor element i spline function spectral density 5 3 14 10 11 11 10 R S S t T (effective) thickness of Hall plate temperature time (absolute) temperature deviation function time U voltage voltage U velocity carrier velocity availability contrast ratio of the resist voltage volume U V W W X X deflection weighting of component width displacement, thickness, spatial coordinate input/output signal measurand (eg concentration) spatial coordinate 22 10 8 3 2 10 8 5 22 1 1 10 7 19 5 2, 3, 7 3 19 5 10 2, 11 635 List of Symbols Symbol Designation Chapter Y floating output signal spatial coordinate spatial coordinate 15 10 Y z Z a as Y r A & &O t9 e, o x 1 A P PO V r n n e (3 distance, spatial coordinate spatial coordinate absorption coefficient angle Hooge parameter smoothing factor Seebeck coefficient coefficient in PLS-method gage factor of the strain gage isotropic exponent front surface reflection coefficient difference inaccuracy permittivity dielectric constant temperature angle conductivity of a solution thermal conductivity air-to-fuel ratio wavelength selectivity magnetic permeability mean value mobility of charge carriers magnetic permeability of vacuum kinetic viscosity transmission factor Poisson’s ratio vibration rate damping factor tensor of piezoresistive coefficients specificity correlation coefficient density resistivity coefficient in PLS-method conductivity standard deviation stress 2, 3 I 15 3 11 21 22 3 2 19 3 14 2 2, 11 3, 7 22 10 3 19 10 3 2 11 I 11 2 3.
Light 415 - local linear 594f. - sound in air 413 velocity sensors 565 venturi 584 vibrating element 338 vibration measurements 5lOff. viscoelastic properties 478 viscous damping of a micro-mechanical element 94 vision systems - problems for 471 - robot 454 vision teach 454 visual display unit (VDU) 365 volatile organic compounds (VOC) 541 wafers 111 - bonding 99, 160 - level encapsulation 89 - preparation of 1lOff. - quartz, crystalline 287 - silicon 210 - - flat locations on 111 - - material properties for 112 - - oxidation of 112ff.
Advances in computational electrodynamics : the finite-difference time-domain method by Allen Taflove