Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of - download pdf or read online

By Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon

ISBN-10: 1402032846

ISBN-13: 9781402032844

ISBN-10: 1402038240

ISBN-13: 9781402038242

"[…] an enticing and well-written evaluation of the present prestige of our wisdom of the composition of the center surroundings and the elemental radiative, dynamical and photochemical techniques which hold it." (Bulletin American Meteorological Society)

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Extra info for Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library)

Example text

This is not always the case, since B and C may also be undergoing production and destruction reactions that introduce a time dependence in their densities over the time τA . In a system like the atmosphere, in which numerous gases are interacting simultaneously, chemical change usually occurs through a network of interacting steps (reaction mechanism). 38) (A) = k1 (B) + k2 (C)(M) + k3 (F) In some cases, the effective rate of a reaction can be increased by a so-called catalytic cycle of intermediate reactions.

1) and radiative decay can occur. 2) The selection rules for radiative processes permit us to evaluate the ease or difficulty with which a particular transition can proceed. The basic rules are as follows: ∗ Spin is unchanged in an allowed transition, for both atoms and molecules. This is generally the most important consideration in establishing the transition probability. ∗ L or Λ changes of 1 or zero are allowed, except in the case of atoms if 0 → 0 (S → S). , D → S) are unfavorable. ∗ For molecules with g and u subscripts, g → u transitions are allowed, but u → u or g → g transitions are difficult.

The rate at which a chemical reaction occurs varies considerably from one reaction to another and must be determined in the laboratory. For a reaction between species A, B, C, . , expressed as aA + bB + cC + . . → mM + nN + . . 21) where coefficients a, b, c, etc. are the smallest possible integers that provide the correct stoichiometry, the reaction rate R can be expressed by the general expression R = f [(A), (B), (C), . . 22) where (A) represents the concentration of species A. As shown by experimental studies, this function may be complex, but may often be of the form R = k(A)α (B)β (C)γ .

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Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library) by Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon

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