By Catherine Raeff
In recent times, there was a proliferation of theoretical and empirical scholarship on how problems with human separateness, or independence, and problems with human connectedness, or interdependence, are performed out in diversified cultural contexts. regardless of contract at the price of knowing tradition and improvement when it comes to independence and interdependence, many concerns stay open for persisted theoretical refinement and empirical research. This publication provides a clean conceptualization which holds that independence and interdependence are multifaceted and inseparable dimensions of human functioning which may be outlined and enacted otherwise in several cultures. hence, the present technique bills for the elemental separateness and connectedness of all humans in a manner that's either universally appropriate and culturally delicate. in keeping with this conceptual procedure, the point of interest of this article is to delineate how different independence and interdependence matters are interrelated in the course of improvement in culturally exact methods. In doing so, the publication bargains a conceptual procedure that strikes cultural and developmental analyses past investigating even if a few cultures worth independence or interdependence roughly than others, to investigating how either independence and interdependence are construed and particularized in the course of improvement all over the world. constantly Separate, regularly attached: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of improvement can be of curiosity to a variety of developmentalists in psychology, schooling, kin stories, anthropology, and sociology. moreover, the booklet might serve complex undergraduates, in addition to graduate scholars in those various disciplines. it could actually even be of curiosity to social welfare practitioners, akin to medical psychologists, assistance counselors, and social staff.
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Additional info for Always Separate, Always Connected: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of Development
Hofstede himself claimed that a country’s individualism score, based on his work goals questionnaire, does not reveal “all there is to be known about the backgrounds and structures of relationship 16 CHAPTER 1 patterns in that country. It is an abstraction that should not be extended beyond its limited area of usefulness” (1994, p. xi). The main point that I am trying to make is that when independence and interdependence are conceptualized in opposing and mutually exclusive terms, there is then an implication that what is characteristic of one cannot, logically, be characteristic of the other.
In some cases, when the value of relationships in allegedly independence-oriented cultures is explicitly acknowledged, it is described rather pejoratively. For example, it has been pointed out that social obligations are carried out by people within individualistic cultures “when their computations of the advantages and disadvantages suggest they would derive a clear benefit” (Triandis, 1995, p. 11), and thus, “Individualists rationally analyze the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining and fostering relationships” (p.
In this chapter, it was suggested that recent conceptual attempts fall into two broad categories, dubbed the “sometimes independence, sometimes interdependence” and the “cooccurrence” models. Although these models have taken us beyond THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS, PART 1 37 unidimensional dichotomous approaches, varied conceptual issues and questions were raised that require clarification to further our understanding of how independence and interdependence enter into children’s developmental experiences.
Always Separate, Always Connected: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of Development by Catherine Raeff