By F. E. Close

ISBN-10: 0121751503

ISBN-13: 9780121751500

This ebook is great for higher point undergraduates or reduce point physics graduate scholars. it's a resource for realizing the fundamental inspiration of the normal version. For a few sections an information of matrix arithmetic is thought, in spite of the fact that, loads of the ebook will be understood even with out this history.

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**Example text**

Now, using (108), together with (103), (104) and (106), we get the dyon electric "eld " E "(q/4 )r/r . (109) For a long segment of string, the monopole and the antimonopole at the ends are well separated and we can repeat the above analysis for both of them independently. Therefore, the electric charge on the antimonopole at one end of a Z-string segment is uncorrelated with the charge on the monopole at the other end of the string. This means that we can have dyons of arbitrary electric charge at either end of the string.

Here we shall not describe these conditions but remark that the Z-string is due to the embedded symmetry breaking G ;(1) P1 , (115) 8 where the ;(1) is generated by ¹ , de"ned in Eq. (17). Now, there are other ;(1)'s that can be 8 8 embedded in the GSW model which lie entirely in the S;(2) factor. -diagonal generators of S;(2)). Since we have ;(1) P1 (116) 388 A. Achu& carro, T. Vachaspati / Physics Reports 327 (2000) 347}426 when the electroweak symmetry breaks, there is the possibility of another string solution in the GSW model.

Achu& carro, T. z-axis is quantized in units of 4 /g (recall X g "e/cos sin gives the coupling of the Z boson to the Higgs "eld). Therefore, for the unit X winding string, F " "4 /g . 81 X Then (95) yields (96) "(4 /g )tan "(4 /e)sin . (97) F "(4 /g )sin , F " X 7 X \1 Hence the terminus of the string has net A-#ux emanating from it and hence it is a magnetic monopole. The electromagnetic #ux of the electroweak monopole appears to violate the Dirac quantization condition. However, this is not true since one must also take the Z-string into account when deriving the quantization condition relevant to the electroweak monopole.

### An introduction to quarks and partons by F. E. Close

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