By David W. Chapman
David W. Chapman examines moment Temple and early rabbinic literature and fabric continues to be so one can reveal the variety of historical Jewish perceptions approximately crucifixion. Early Christian literature is then proven to mirror wisdom of, and interplay with, those Jewish perceptions. historical Jewish ancient debts of crucifixion are tested, magical literature is analyzed, and the proverbial use of crucifixion imagery is studied. He can pay unique cognizance to Jewish interpretations of key outdated testomony texts that point out human physically suspension in organization with execution. past reviews have proven how pervasive in antiquity used to be the view of the move as a negative and shameful demise. during this quantity, the writer offers extra proof of such perspectives in old Jewish groups. extra optimistic perceptions may be connected to crucifixion insofar because the demise might be linked to the blameless patient or martyr in addition to with latent sacrificial photographs. Christian literature, proclaiming a crucified Messiah, betrays know-how of those a variety of perceptions by way of trying to reject or remodel detrimental stereotypes, or by means of embracing a few of these extra optimistic institutions. hence early Christian literature at the go indicates, to a better measure than is often well-known, a mirrored image upon some of the Jewish perceptions of the move in antiquity
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Extra resources for Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion
3 9 - 4 0 ) . 7 3 See Baumgarten, " H a n g i n g , " p p . 8 * (on t. Sanh. 1) and 9* (esp. note 15, citing m. Yebam. 16:3). Halperin, "Crucifixion," esp. 3 7 - 4 0 . ), even w h e r e not speak ing of h u m a n bodily suspension (he notes D e u t 28:66). Baumgarten seizes on H a l p e r i n ' s admitted exception in the Samaritan T a r g u m , noting that thus 2*72$ is used " . . e v e n w h e r e the verb does not pertain to execution" ( B a u m g a r t e n , " H a n g i n g , " 8*). Halperin, "Crucifixion," 3 9 - 4 0 .
Halperin portrays an almost entirely opposite view from that of Baumgarten, since Halperin holds that 2 * 7 2 $ generally designates crucifixion. Halperin emphasizes the evidence of Syriac, Mandaic, and Christian Palestinian Aramaic with regard to sib (pp. 37-38). He also contends that 2 * 7 2 $ in the targumim is only used in reference to the penal bodily suspension of humans either living or dead (p. 3 8 ) . ), argues that the Esther Targumim "plainly intend" crucifixion in their use of 2 * 7 2 $ (p.
4:11; b. Nid. 71b (the dripping blood of a crucified person). To these add some of the Aramaic passages cited earlier in our discussion of Cohn's work; and further passages will arise in later chapters of this book. Fourth, Baumgarten unduly limits his study of the way in which ancient Jewish translations and interpreters rendered the use of Π*7Π in the Hebrew Bible. Having confined to "hanging" (by the neck), Baumgarten goes on to say that it is the normal targumic way of rendering Π * 7 Π . Indirectly he thus implies that the versional evidence would suggest only a "hanging" interpretation of Π*7Π in OT texts by Jewish translators.
Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion by David W. Chapman