By Callum F. Ross, Richard F. Kay
This moment version might be an edited quantity of curiosity to those that do study and train in regards to the evolution of primates. It goals to exhibit to primatologists, anthropologists, palaeontologists, and neuroscientists the newest stories of primate phylogeny, the anthropoid fossil checklist, the evolution of the primate visible process, and the beginning of the anthropoid social structures. This identify encompasses a CD-ROM and colour figures.
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Additional info for Anthropoid Origins: New Visions
Is Anthropoidea a Monophyletic Group, and What are its Synapomorphic Features? Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift (Ciochon and Chiarelli, 1980), the first volume dedicated to the study of anthropoid origins, documents the demise of the anthropoid polyphyly 16 Callum F. Ross and Richard F. Kay hypothesis in favor of the hypothesis of anthropoid monophyly. , 1980; Goodman, 1975, 1976), enamel microstructure (Gantt, 1980), sulcal patterns on the brain (Falk, 1980), postcranial anatomy (Ford, 1980), cephalic arterial patterns (Bugge, 1980), sperm morphology (Martin and Gould, 1980), and the anatomy of the visual system (Cartmill, 1980)-that all pointed toward anthropoid monophyly.
Thus, Ross (1996) agreed with Cartmill that the postorbital septum probably evolved to protect the eye from movements in the temporal fossa. However, rather than seeing increasing visual acuity as the driving force behind evolution of the septum (Cartmill, 1980), Ross suggested that changes in orbit orientation would necessitate the evolution of a septum, even in the absence of enhanced visual acuity. What then are the causes of the unusually vertical and convergent orbits of anthropoids? Ross (1995b, 1996) posited that a shift to diurnality at small body size would result in (a) high orbital convergence through the allometric consequences of reduced relative orbit size, and (b) high orbital frontation as a result ofincreased size of the brain-especially the frontal lobes-pushing the superior orbital margin rostrally, or rotating the face down relative to the neurocranium as a result of basicranial flexion (Ross and Ravosa, 1993 ).
Thus, T. H . Huxley (1863) classified primates into "seven families of about equal systematic value" which were not related to each other evolutionarily: Anthropini (Homo sapiens), Catarhini, Platyrhini (nonmarmoset ceboids) , Arctopithecini (marmosets), Lemurini, Cheiromyini (Daubentonia), and Galeopithecini. Similarly, functional or adaptive explanations for the existence of groups might have been expected in light of Darwin's emphasis on the importance of adaptation in evolution. However, for a number of reasons this did not happen .
Anthropoid Origins: New Visions by Callum F. Ross, Richard F. Kay